I agree, 40 is borderline undersized as my boot and shoe choices are always limited, only about quarter to third of men's footwear have 40, most start from 41. That being said, the bike is not necessarily a male-only device, in the female universe, 40 is quite a large foot which often belongs to tall women up to 180 cm. Anyway, I'm not exactly 165, rather 173 or something, so yes I am not nearly in the middle of the scale but should be well inside the lower end of the ergonomic envelope. It's not that my foot does not reach the gear lever while arch on peg, but as the foot acts as sort of a lever, a shorter foot has to achieve a more extreme toe-up angle than a longer foot to move the lever same distance up. Same goes with the brake pedal. Anyway, long story short, those saying shorter lever/pedal is better for smaller feet are probably correct. Now, can anyone confirm that the pedals are aluminium? Unless it is some unknown alloy, they should be simple things to disassemble over the winter and bring to someone with a TIG welder who can subtract some 10 millimetres from them.